All dairy operations must be planned with due regard to the comfort the animal. After calving the cow will usually be up and will begin to dry the calf, if for some reason the cow is unable to get up then the calf should be dried with a towel or other suitable material.
- Make sure that all mucus is removed from the nose and mouth. If the calf does not start to breathe, artificial respiration should be used by alternately compressing and relaxing the chest wall with the hands after laying the calf on its side.
- Naval cord should be cut with sterilized scissors leaving “form the body and them entire naval cord be disinfected by Deeping it into a cup containing tincture of iodine.
- Normally the calf will be on its feet and ready for suckling the dam within an hour. Some assistance in this stage is useful. Clean the udder before the calf starts sucking.
- Feed the calf with first milk i.e. colostrum at least for 48 hours. The colostrums should be fed within half an hour after birth. Delay in its feeding causes the calf to loose the ability to absorb antibodies across its inertial walls. The antibodies present in colostrum protect the calf against diseases and it has a laxative effect the rate of feeding should be about 10% of the calf s weight per day up to a maximum of 5-6 liters per day.
- The colostrum is the first secretion of cow after calving. It is thick and yellow in color. It contains 4 to 5 times more protein and 10 to 15 times more vitamin-A than normal milk. Protein of colostrums contains much higher proportion of globulins. The globulins are to be the source of antibody presumed developing the defense mechanism in the calf for many infections. Colostrum is also rich in minerals like Cu, Fe, Mg andMn. It also contains several other vitamins like Riboflavin, Cholin, Thiamine, Pantothenic acid etc., which are for growth of calf.
- The calf is best maintained in an individual pen or stall for the first few weeks. After about eight weeks it may be handled with a group.
- Take body weight of the calf and identify the calf by tattooing.
- At the age of 15 days 32-40 CC of H.S. serum should be inoculated.
- Dehorn the calf preferably within 15 days after birth.
- Teats of the udders of heifers in excess of four should be removed.
- At the age of 3 months the calf should be vaccinated against Anthrax and fifteen days there after it should be vaccinated against B.Q
The future of any herd depends upon how calves are raised. One has to raise one’s own calves to make a good herd. So the calf rearing should be taken upon scientific lines and it should be achieved economically.
Management practice up to six months:
- Provide fresh, clean water all times, particularly when milk feeding is induced discontinued
- Giving of identification mark which is necessary for keeping proper records, proper, feeding, better ore and management.
- Dehorning the calves: at the age of 2-3 weeks, bull calves should be castrated suitably.
- Castration of bull calf: At age of 2-3 months, bull calves should be castrated suitably.
- Removal of extra least: In female calves, the following points to be noted
- Housing: While housing the calves/ the following points to be noted.
- Calf pen should be close to cow shed.
- Pen should provide sunlight; good ventilation floor should not be slippery.
- After 6-8 weeks, calves may be grouped according to age, sex.
- The feed boxes & watering equipment should be provided in the pen.